Deutsch: Referenz / Español: Referencia / Italiano: Reference 

In the quality management context, a reference is a standard or benchmark used for comparison and evaluation. References are used to determine if a product, process,, or service meets specified requirements or standards.

Examples of references in the quality management context include:

  • Industry standards, such as ISO 9001 for quality management systems
  • Technical standards, such as ASTM standards for materials testing
  • Regulatory standards, such as those set by FDA for food and drug products
  • Customer requirements, such as specifications for a product or service
  • Benchmark data, such as performance data for similar products or services
  • Historical data, such as previous test results for a product or process

References in quality management can be used for various purposes, such as to evaluate the performance of a process, to assess the conformance of a product to specified requirements, to determine the validity of a test method, or to compare the results of different processes or products. By using references, organizations can ensure that their products, processes, and services are consistent and meet specified requirements, which can help to improve quality and reduce the risk of defects or non-conformances.

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